Everything You NEED To Know About Your Tyres Sidewall

When shopping for new tyres, you've probably noticed a series of numbers and letters printed on the sidewall of each tyre. 

These alphanumeric codes provide important information about the tyre's specifications, such as size, load-carrying capacity, and maximum speed capability. Decoding these numbers and letters can help you choose the right tyres for your vehicle and ensure a safe, comfortable, and efficient driving experience. In this article, we will explain how to interpret tyre size, load index, and speed rating using the example size 225/40 R18 92Y.

Tyre Size

Tyre size is represented by a series of numbers and letters, such as 225/40 R18. This code indicates the tyre's dimensions and construction. Here's a breakdown of each part:

  • The first three-digit number (225) represents the tyre's width in millimeters, measured from sidewall to sidewall.
  • The two-digit number following the slash (40) is the aspect ratio, which represents the height of the tyre's sidewall as a percentage of its width. In this example, the sidewall height is 40% of the tyre's width.
  • The letter "R" stands for "radial," which indicates the tyre's construction. Radial tyres have layers of fabric that run radially (perpendicular) to the tyre's circumference.
  • The final two-digit number (18) represents the wheel diameter in inches. This number should match the size of your vehicle's wheels.

Some tyre sizes have a leading letter, such as P225/40 R18. The first letter (P) represents the tyre type. In this case, "P" stands for "passenger" and is commonly used for cars, minivans, and SUVs. Other letters include "LT" for light trucks and "T" for temporary spare tyres.

Load Index

The load index is a numerical code that indicates the maximum weight a tyre can safely carry when inflated to its maximum pressure. This number is usually found after the tyre size information and is followed by a speed rating. For example, in the code 225/40 R18 92Y, "92" is the load index. You can find a load index chart online that translates this number into a specific weight in pounds or kilograms. It's essential to choose a tyre with a load index that meets or exceeds your vehicle's requirements to ensure safety and performance.

Load Index Load Capacity (lbs) Load Capacity (kg)
60 551 250
65 639 290
70 739 335
75 853 387
80 992 450
85 1135 515
90 1323 600
95 1521 690
100 1764 800
105 2039 925
110 2337 1060
115 2679 1215
120 3086 1400
125 3638 1650
130 4189 1900

Extra Load (XL) Tyres

In addition to the standard load index, some tyres feature an "Extra Load" or "XL" designation, which indicates their ability to carry a higher load capacity compared to standard tyres of the same size. XL tyres are designed with reinforced sidewalls, allowing them to support more weight while maintaining proper inflation levels. These tyres can be particularly useful for heavier vehicles, those with a high center of gravity, or when carrying heavier loads. However, it's important to note that XL tyres often require higher inflation pressures to achieve their increased load capacity. Always consult your vehicle's owner's manual or a tyre professional to determine if XL tyres are appropriate for your specific needs and to ensure proper inflation levels.

How to Determine Your Vehicle's Load Index Requirements

Your vehicle's load index requirements can be found in the owner's manual or on the tyre placard, which is usually located on the driver's side doorjamb, inside the fuel door, or in the glove compartment. Ensure that the tyres you choose have a load index equal to or greater than the value specified by the manufacturer. This ensures that the tyres can safely support the weight of your vehicle and its occupants.

Speed Rating

The speed rating is a letter that follows the load index and represents the maximum speed a tyre can safely maintain under its specified load capacity.

Speed Rating Maximum Speed (mph) Maximum Speed (km/h)
L 75 120
M 81 130
N 87 140
P 93 150
Q 99 160
R 106 170
S 112 180
T 118 190
U 124 200
H 130 210
V 149 240
Z Over 149 Over 240
W 168 270
Y 186 300
(Y) Over 186 Over 300

For example, in the code 225/40 R18 92Y, "Y" is the speed rating, indicating a maximum speed of 186 mph or 300 km/h. It's crucial to choose a tyre with a speed rating that meets or exceeds your vehicle's capabilities and your typical driving conditions.

Considerations When Selecting a Speed and Load Rating

While it may be tempting to choose a tyre with the highest possible speed rating and load rating, it's essential to consider your actual driving needs. Tyres with higher speed and load ratings often have a stiffer construction, which can lead to a firmer ride and additional noise in the cabin. Additionally, they can be more expensive than tyres with lower speed ratings. Select a tyre with a speed rating that matches your driving habits and the performance capabilities of your vehicle, the minimum load rating must match what is recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.

UTQG Rating

The Uniform Tyre Quality Grading (UTQG) rating system is another important piece of information found on the tyre sidewall. Mandated by the U.S. Department of Transportation, the UTQG rating provides a standardized method to compare the performance of different tyres in terms of treadwear, traction, and temperature resistance. The UTQG rating is not a requirement for all tyres, such as winter tyres and some light truck tyres, but it is commonly found on passenger car tyres. The rating consists of three components:


The treadwear grade is a three-digit number that represents the tyre's relative wear rate compared to a reference tyre. A higher number indicates a longer-lasting tyre, while a lower number suggests a shorter lifespan. For example, a tyre with a treadwear grade of 300 is expected to last twice as long as a tyre with a grade of 150. Keep in mind that the actual lifespan of a tyre can be influenced by factors such as road conditions, driving habits, and proper maintenance.


The traction grade represents the tyre's ability to stop on wet pavement under controlled testing conditions. It is expressed as a letter grade, with AA being the highest rating, followed by A, B, and C. The traction grade provides an indication of the tyre's wet grip performance but does not account for handling, cornering, or braking on dry surfaces or in snowy or icy conditions.


The temperature grade indicates the tyre's ability to dissipate heat and resist heat buildup under controlled testing conditions. Excessive heat can cause tyre degradation and potentially lead to tyre failure. The temperature grade is expressed as a letter, with A being the highest rating, followed by B and C. An "A" rating signifies that the tyre can withstand higher temperatures for sustained periods without compromising safety or performance.

It's important to note that the UTQG rating system is primarily a tool for comparing tyres within the same brand, as testing and grading criteria can vary between manufacturers. When choosing new tyres for your vehicle, consider the UTQG rating along with other factors such as tyre size, load index, and speed rating to ensure optimal safety, comfort, and performance.

DOT Codes

The Department of Transportation (DOT) code is a unique identifier found on a tyre's sidewall that provides important information about the tyre's manufacturing date and location. This code is required by the U.S. Department of Transportation for all tyres sold in the United States. Understanding the DOT code can help you determine the age of your tyres and ensure their safe usage.

Decoding the DOT Code

The DOT code is composed of several elements, including a set of letters and numbers. The first two letters indicate the tyre manufacturer, followed by a series of numbers and letters that provide additional information about the tyre's specifications. The last four digits of the code represent the manufacturing date.

Here's a breakdown of the DOT code components:

  • Manufacturer Identifier: The first two letters or numbers represent the tyre manufacturer and plant code.
  • Size and Specification Codes: The following numbers and letters provide information about the tyre's size, construction, and other specifications.
  • Date Code: The last four digits represent the week and year of manufacture. For example, the above image has a tyre with a date code of "1121" was produced during the eleventh week of 2021.

Why the DOT Code Matters

Knowing how to read the DOT code is essential for determining the age of your tyres. Tyres naturally degrade over time due to factors such as exposure to sunlight, heat, and various environmental conditions. Most tyre manufacturers recommend replacing tyres that are six to ten years old, regardless of their tread depth. By checking the DOT code, you can ensure your tyres are within their safe usage period and replace them as needed to maintain optimal performance and safety.

In addition, the DOT code can help you identify tyres that may be subject to recalls or safety campaigns. By registering your tyres with the manufacturer or checking their website for recall information, you can stay informed about any potential safety issues related to your specific tyre model.

M+S or M/S Symbol

Tyres marked with "M+S" or "M/S" indicate that they are designed for mud and snow conditions. These tyres typically have a more aggressive tread pattern to provide better traction on slippery or loose surfaces. While M+S tyres can offer improved performance in certain conditions, they are not a substitute for dedicated winter tyres, which are specifically designed to handle cold temperatures, ice, and deep snow.

Directional or Asymmetrical Tyres

Some tyres have specific designs that require them to be mounted in a particular direction or orientation. Directional tyres have a V-shaped tread pattern optimized for channeling water away from the tyre's contact patch, reducing the risk of hydroplaning. The sidewall of directional tyres will display an arrow indicating the correct rotation direction.

Asymmetrical tyres have a tread pattern that varies across the width of the tyre, with different designs on the inner and outer sides. This type of tyre is designed to provide a balance between wet and dry performance. Asymmetrical tyres will have markings on the sidewall to indicate which side should face outwards when mounted on the wheel.

Recommended Inflation Pressure

While not always present on the tyre sidewall, some tyres may display the recommended inflation pressure, expressed in pounds per square inch (psi) or kilopascals (kPa). It is important to maintain proper tyre inflation for optimal performance, fuel efficiency, and tyre longevity. Always consult your vehicle's owner's manual or the information placard located inside the driver's door jamb for the correct tyre pressure specifications for your vehicle.


Understanding tyre size, load index, and speed rating is essential when selecting new tyres for your vehicle. Decoding the numbers and letters on the tyre sidewall, such as our example size 225/40 R18 92Y, allows you to make informed decisions and ensure a safe and comfortable driving experience. Always consult your vehicle's owner's manual or consult a tyre professional for guidance on choosing the right tyres for your specific needs.


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